Analysis: Safety Rules Give Homes Better Chance in Wildfires

PARADISE, Calif. - The sky was turning orange and the embers were flying from the Camp Fire when Oney and Donna Carrell and Donna's father sped away from their Paradise home.

"I thought, 'Oh, well, the house is done,"' Oney Carrell said.

A few days later, they learned otherwise. The Carrells' home survived the deadliest and most destructive wildfire in California history with a couple of warped window frames, a partially charred down spout and a stubborn smoky smell inside.

Most of their neighbourhood was destroyed. A guest house in their backyard, where Donna's father lived, was reduced to ashes, along with a couple of sheds. Yet their beautifully restored 1940 Studebaker sat untouched in the garage.

The arc of destruction the Camp Fire carved through Paradise was seemingly random: Why were some houses saved and others incinerated? As millions of Californians brace for another wildfire season , a McClatchy analysis of fire and property records shows the answer might be found in something as simple as the roofs over their heads - and the year their house was built.

A landmark 2008 building code designed for California's fire-prone regions - requiring fire-resistant roofs, siding and other safeguards - appears to have protected the Carrells' home and dozens of others like it from the Camp Fire. That year marks a pivotal moment in the state's deadly and expensive history of destructive natural disasters.

All told, about 51 per cent of the 350 single-family homes built after 2008 in the path of the Camp Fire were undamaged, according to McClatchy's analysis of Cal Fire data and Butte County property records. By contrast, only 18 per cent of the 12,100 homes built prior to 2008 escaped damage. Those figures don't include mobile homes, which burned in nearly equal measure regardless of age.

"These are great standards; they work," said senior engineer Robert Raymer of the California Building Industry Association, who consulted with state officials on the building code.

Yet despite this lesson, California may end up falling short in its effort to protect homes from the next wildfire.

Mushrooming cities such as Folsom, where an 11,000-home development is springing up, have the ability to bypass the state's safety standards in spite of considerable fire risks. The state, which offers cash incentives to bolster old homes against earthquakes, so far has done nothing to get Californians to retrofit homes built before 2008 for fire safety.

It hasn't helped that housing construction went into a deep dive in 2008 and has been slow to recover. Raymer said only 860,000 homes and apartments have been built statewide since the code went into effect. That's just 6 per cent of the state's housing stock.

According to Cal Fire, as many as 3 million homes lie within the various "fire hazard severity zones" around the state. Dave Sapsis, a Cal Fire wildland fire scientist, said there's no way to know definitively how many of those homes were built before 2008, but he believes "it's the preponderance of them, the majority."

The situation is worse in rural California, where housing construction lags but the fire hazards are among the worst in the state, Raymer said. Fewer than 3 per cent of the homes in the path of the Camp Fire were built after 2008.

"Most of our inventory that was here prior to the fire was (built) between the '40s and the '70s," said Paradise Town Councilman Michael Zuccolillo, a real estate agent. "The average home here was from the '70s."

That leaves thousands of homes at risk from the next inferno across California, their wood-shake shingles waiting to ignite.

"What are we going to do about the existing housing stock that's been built in these places?" said Max Moritz, a wildfire specialist at UC Santa Barbara. "For the existing housing stock that's out there, that isn't built to these codes, we have a massive retrofitting issue on our hands. They have structure ignition vulnerabilities that are built into the situation, they're baked into the problem."

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'THE WEAKEST LINK'

The Carrells, now living in a rental in Roseville, designed their Paradise home and did much of the interior work themselves; they knew that home was built with fire safety in mind.

"I knew we were in the middle of the forest," Oney Carrell said during a recent visit to Paradise. "Why wouldn't you do everything you could to make it last?"

But even he's amazed that their home made it. Stepping over a blackened patio drain just a few feet from the back of the house, he wondered aloud: "I don't know why it stopped here."

It's almost impossible to say for certain why some homes are still standing in Paradise, while others were ruined. Landscaping surely played a role ; fire experts say homes buffered by so-called "defensible space" probably did better than those wrapped in shrubs. Luck was a big factor, too, as homes were no doubt spared by last-second shifts in the winds.

Nevertheless, experts say, McClatchy's analysis reinforces their belief that California's fire-safe building code can make a difference in an era of increasing vulnerability. Daniel Gorham, a former firefighter and U.S. Forest Service researcher who works for the Insurance Institute for Business & Home Safety in South Carolina, said the California code is becoming a model for other fire-prone states.

"California is leaps and bounds ahead of other parts of the country," Gorham said. "California is on the forefront."

Advocates say fire-resistant building materials aren't particularly expensive. A study last fall by Headwater Economics, a consulting firm in Bozeman, Mont., found that "a new home built to wildfire-resistant codes can be constructed for roughly the same cost as a typical home."

But getting Californians to retrofit homes built before 2008 is an enormous task. The state requires property owners in fire zones who replace at least half their roof to install "fire-retardant" materials on the entire roof. Other than that, however, there's nothing forcing Californians to safeguard their existing homes against fire hazards.

A few California cities have taken matters into their own hands. In 2008, the City Council in Big Bear Lake, a community of 5,200 in San Bernardino County, passed an ordinance declaring wood shake shingle roofs "a severe fire hazard and danger" and ordered homeowners to replace them by 2012. Armed with state and federal grants, it offered cash incentives of up to $4,500 apiece for new roofs.

Although the grant program has run out, "I can't think of the last time I saw a shake roof in Big Bear," said Patrick Johnston, the city's chief building official.

Most Californians, however, are on their own when it comes to spending the tens of thousands of dollars needed to replace a roof or install fire-resistant siding. The state offers no financial incentives for fire safety the way it does, say, for earthquakes - homeowners in quake zones can get up to $3,000 apiece from the state to gird their homes against seismic disaster.

There are signs, however, that the state is beginning to get more serious about retrofitting homes for fire safety.

A law signed last year by former Gov. Jerry Brown requires the state fire marshal to develop a suggested list of "low-cost retrofits" by January 2020. The state would then promote these retrofits in its education and outreach efforts.

California also might start throwing cash at the problem.

A new bill, AB 38, introduced earlier this year by Democratic Assemblyman Jim Wood of Santa Rosa, would create a $1 billion "fire hardened homes revolving loan fund" to help homeowners retrofit their properties.

The issue is personal for Wood, a dentist who spent weeks helping identify victims from the Camp Fire and the wine country fires of October 2017. Although eligibility terms haven't been spelled out, the bill would offer low-interest and no-interest loans to help those who otherwise couldn't pay for new roofs or other safeguards.

"A lot of these small towns are not as well off financially," he said. "We need to find a way to help them, especially if they're poorer."

The fund might not be nearly enough to go around - not with hundreds of thousands of homes in need of retrofits, and a new roof alone costing $10,000 or more. "The $1 billion, indeed, that's not enough to rehab every home," said the Building Industry Association's Raymer. But he said it's "an absolutely excellent way to kick things off."

Wood said state officials would have to figure out a plan for parceling out the money to where it's needed most - probably starting with lower-income areas near forests.

"Obviously we want to affect the areas with the highest risk first," the assemblyman said. "A lot of these small towns are not as well off financially. We need to find a way to help them, especially if they're poorer."

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MAPPING 'SEVERITY ZONES'

The fire-safe building code had its origins in two significant fires from a generation ago - the Panorama Fire of 1980, which spilled out of the mountains into the city of San Bernardino; and the monstrous Oakland Hills Fire of 1991, which wiped out 2,500 homes and killed 25 people.

In response, the Legislature ordered the Department of Fire Protection and Forestry to start mapping major fire risks in California, in the hinterlands as well as urban areas. The result was a collection of maps of the state's "fire hazard severity zones," encompassing more than one-third of California's land mass.

Based on factors such as terrain, vegetation and weather patterns, the zones represent Cal Fire's attempt to predict the probability of a fire starting and the likelihood that it could become significant, said Cal Fire's Sapsis.

The maps spawned tighter building standards. The Legislature mandated fire-resistant roofs in these fire-prone areas. Then in 2008 the state laid out a more comprehensive scheme. The California Building Standards Commission rolled out a suite of regulations, known as Chapter 7A, that set strict rules for roofing materials, siding, windows, decks and other elements of a home built in 2008 or later - right down to the minimum specs for the wire mesh that must be installed on attic vents to keep embers out (no more than a quarter-inch of space between the wires).

Experts said the regulations seem to be particularly effective at protecting structures from the types of wildfires that are increasingly common in California, where wind gusts can blow embers a mile or two ahead of the main wall of flames and do some of the worst damage.

"A window breaks, a vent breaks, the fire gets into your home and you've got an interior structure fire," said Joe Poire, the city of Santa Barbara's fire marshal.

Enforcement of the building code carries a few wrinkles. In the mainly rural areas where Cal Fire is in charge of fire protection, the Chapter 7A code is automatically enforced in any region that Cal Fire has designated as a "severity zone" - moderate, high or very high.

In urban areas that have their own fire departments, the code is generally used only in spots where Cal Fire says the threat is very high. Local governments have the discretion of rejecting the Cal Fire designation, and Sapsis said some city councils have been squeamish about the state's maps because of fears that the Chapter 7A code will inflate construction costs, or for other reasons.

Yet interviews with local officials throughout California by McClatchy indicate that the vast majority of cities and towns go along with Cal Fire's recommendations. Santa Barbara city officials extended the building code to coastal areas that had been overlooked by Cal Fire's mappers. The map omits small portions of Paradise, but the building code is enforced across the entire town, said Paradise public information officer Colette Curtis.

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DANGER IN SANTA ROSA, FOLSOM?

Nevertheless, there are places where local officials are reluctant to impose strict building codes - even where fire has caused catastrophe.

Before Paradise exploded, Santa Rosa's Coffey Park was the poster child for recent California wildfire disasters: Five people died and 1,321 homes were destroyed by the Tubbs Fire in October 2017.

Coffey Park wasn't subject to California's Chapter 7A building code. It still isn't.

Unlike some areas of Santa Rosa, the neighbourhood hasn't been designated a "very high fire hazard" zone by Cal Fire. City officials are OK with that. Although developers rebuilding Coffey Park are being urged to consider fire-resistant materials, city spokeswoman Adriane Mertens said the city doesn't see any reason to impose the 7A code in the neighbourhood.

"There were very, very high winds that night," Mertens said. "There were embers that were blown across the (Highway 101) freeway, across six lanes of freeway, into Coffey Park."

Jack Cohen, a fire scientist in Montana who helped develop the 7A code, said he thinks Santa Rosa is committing "an error in judgment" by rebuilding without the safeguards.

In any event, Cal Fire is updating its fire hazard maps over the next year or so, taking into account more sophisticated data on wind and other climate factors, and Sapsis said spots such as Coffey Park could wind up designated as high-risk areas. Once the maps are done, any region placed inside Cal Fire's "very high fire" zone will have no choice but to comply, under a bill signed into law by Brown last year.

But there will still be ways for cities to skirt the state building code.

Look at Folsom, widely considered one of the most vulnerable places in greater Sacramento to fire. The county's hazard mitigation plan says 44,000 residents of Folsom are already at "moderate or higher wildfire risk."

Now the suburb is building a development called Folsom Ranch, eventually to be home to 25,000 people, on a parcel south of Highway 50.

The development is on land that used to be subject to the strict state building code. Now it isn't.

How did that happen? Years ago, the land was outside Folsom's city limits and Cal Fire was responsible for its safety. Cal Fire's maps put the land in the "moderate" risk zone - a threat level high enough that, under the state's regulations, the fire-safe building code took effect. As it happened, no construction took place during that time, city officials say.

The situation changed when the city annexed the land to forge ahead with Folsom Ranch. Because the land has never been in the state's "very high" risk zone, the city feels comfortable letting Folsom Ranch develop without the Chapter 7A building code.

Fire Chief Felipe Rodriguez said Folsom officials are still open to "the possibility of strengthening, hardening, our future homes." But for now, the city is only requiring homeowners' associations to implement a "vegetation management" plan and install fire-resistant fencing around properties that abut open space areas, Rodriguez said.

Is Folsom courting danger? Rodriguez doesn't think so. The city will build two fire stations in the development and will "be able to suppress a fire during its early stages," he said.

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'STICKS IN A FIREPLACE'

The hundreds of thousands of older homes in fire zones aren't just more vulnerable in their own right.

Experts say they spread danger to new homes built to stricter standards.

"One little house built to a new standard, surrounded by a bunch of older stuff, is likely to get swamped," Sapsis said.

Paradise provided a grim reminder of that problem. The Camp Fire destroyed more than 80 per cent of the 4,100 mobile homes in its path, whether they were built to the new code or not, according to McClatchy's data analysis. That isn't surprising, Sapsis said, given that many of Paradise's mobile homes were jammed alongside one another in mobile home parks.

"They're stacked so close together, they're like sticks in a fireplace," Sapsis said.

Sapsis and others say the lesson is that strong building codes aren't enough. In particular, experts say communities must pay more attention to how they lay out their neighbourhoods, allowing for firebreaks and enough space between houses.

"In the name of affordable housing, we're moving housing closer and closer to one another," said Chris Dicus, a forestry and fire expert at Cal Poly, San Luis Obispo. "That serves to have house-to-house-to-house ignition."

The problem isn't limited to densely-packed urban areas. "I live in a rural community, and I have got six feet basically separating me from my neighbour," said Dicus, who lives outside of Morro Bay.

In addition, experts say California is struggling to enforce the state law regarding "defensible space" around properties.

The law requires that property owners maintain as much as 100 feet of defensible space around homes and other buildings in and around "a mountainous area, forest-covered lands, brush-covered lands, grass-covered lands, or land that is covered with flammable material." That means keeping trees and shrubs pruned and spaced far apart. Within five feet of the building, property owners are supposed to remove anything that could catch fire: mulch, plants, woodpiles and so on.

In practice, however, enforcement of the defensible space law has been spotty at best. Raymer, of the California Building Industry Association, said most property owners don't understand how to maintain their yards. The state doesn't impose penalties for non-compliance, and only a few local governments have chosen to do so, Raymer said.

Legislation could change that. SB 190, by Sen. Bill Dodd, D-Napa, would require the state fire marshal to develop a "model defensible space program," including penalties, that local governments could adopt.

The problem extends beyond homeowners' property lines. Gov. Gavin Newsom, finding some rare common ground with the Trump administration, is advocating for more aggressive management of forested lands.

A thinned forest northeast of Paradise provided one of the rare victories of the Camp Fire. As the fire raged out of the tiny community of Pulga, it essentially spared the northern part of Magalia. The reason was a series of forest-thinning projects conducted in recent years and overseen by the U.S. Forest Service, Sierra Pacific Industries and the volunteer Butte County Fire Safe Council. The council also worked diligently with area residents to clear brush from their property.

All that work "did exactly what we hoped it would do," said Calli-Jane DeAnda, executive director of the council, which secured $1 million in grants to remove fuels from forested areas. "This investment of public money is so worth the effort."

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THE PARADISE 'LAB EXPERIMENT'

The rebuilding of Paradise means thousands of homes are going to be constructed in the coming years to the stricter standards promulgated by the state in 2008. It represents the single largest test of the effectiveness of the building code.

"That is an absolute lab experiment for us," Sapsis said.

On the streets of Paradise, though, community leaders are taking a more measured view. Zuccolillo, the town councilman, said asphalt roofs and stucco siding might "give us more of a chance" but he doubts they will guarantee Paradise's safety.

"I saw metal buildings, metal and stucco buildings, burn to the ground," he said.

Still, there's plenty of evidence, all over Paradise, that the state's building code can protect property.

The other day, Sean Herr pulled into his driveway on the west side of Paradise, where he and his wife Dawn were raising their two young children.

The first thing he did was bring out the ultimate symbol of resiliency: an American flag, the same one that flew on his front porch the day of the Camp Fire.

Like the flag, the house is still standing. The Herrs' home, built in 2010, suffered a bit of scorching and some interior smoke damage - the smoke is bad enough that they're still temporarily living in Chico and aren't certain they'll move back.

Still, they marvel at what a close call they had. A Ford Excursion and a boat parked in the front yard, just a few feet from their porch, were destroyed. Five motorcycles locked in a shed behind the house got ruined. Most of their neighbourhood is gone.

The Herrs believe their attention to defensible space - the house is mostly encircled in gravel - and the strictness of the building code probably made the difference.

"Our yard and the construction of the house saved it for sure," Dawn Herr said, gesturing to a small scorch mark by the side of the house. "You can see it tried to catch on fire."

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Ryan Sabalow of The Sacramento Bee and Steve Schoonover of the Chico Enterprise-Record contributed to this report.

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In a hydronic system, water circulates through a boiler, which maintains it at a temperature warm enough to heat the floor. This type of system is less costly to operate than an electric system, especially if you supplement the energy source needed to heat the water by using solar panels. The pipes that carry the heated water in a hydronic system are often embedded in concrete, because concrete is a good thermal conductor. The pipes in older systems are usually copper, but newer systems employ polyethylene (PEX) tubing, which is more versatile and easier to install. PEX tubing can even be installed in existing joists, so it is possible to have radiant heat under your hardwood or tile floor without having to tear it up. Electric Radiant Heat The elements in an electric radiant heat system are typically embedded in mats that go between the subfloor and the floor covering. The best time to install these is when you are replacing the floor covering. If your floor is not due for replacement anytime soon, you can also buy mats that fit between the joists and install them from underneath the floor. Three Types of Hydronic Systems You can choose from three different hydronic heating systems: closed, open or heat exchange. Closed system. The boiler is dedicated to the heating system. The main advantage of this type of system is that you can use antifreeze instead of water as the circulating fluid. Antifreeze is less corrosive than water, which is good for the boiler, and it's also more efficient at transferring heat. Open system. The boiler supplies hot water to bathrooms and kitchens as well as the heating system. You save money because you only need one water heater. Heat exchanger. A heat exchange system combines the benefits of both open and closed systems. The pipes that supply the radiant heat system pass through the main water heater, but they are sealed and usually circulate antifreeze instead of water. And you can get creative with a heat exchange system and tie it to a solar heating panel. The pipes from the panel can circulate antifreeze through the water heater as well as the floor, lowering your water heating costs while also providing heat for the house. Pros and Cons of Radiant Heat On the plus side, a radiant heating system puts the heat exactly where you need it-under your feet. As the warm air rises, the room quickly becomes uniformly and comfortably warm without the drafts and convection currents associated with forced air. Another advantage over forced air is that a radiant system has fewer moving parts. The only components you have to service are the boiler-which can double as a hot water heater for the bathroom in a pinch-and the circulation pump, which is a relatively inexpensive item. You will be happy you have radiant heat when the power goes out during a winter storm, because the floor retains heat for a few hours. The main drawback of radiant heat is its installation cost. This probably is not a problem if you are already building or renovating. But if you are not , the cost, which can approach $9.00 per square foot in a smaller house, can definitely be a factor. Another disadvantage is that a radiant heating system does not work well as a cooling system. If you need both heating and cooling, it's usually best to go with a forced air system. As far as electric radiant heat is concerned, it's best suited as a supplement to your existing heating system. It consumes too much electricity to make it practical as a stand-alone heating system for the entire home. Compatible Floor Coverings Not all floor coverings conduct heat well enough to work with radiant heating systems. The best choice is ceramic tile, which conducts heat as well as concrete. Laminate and stone flooring, as well as solid and engineered hardwood, are also suitable. Carpeting and vinyl flooring, however, are not good choices. These materials are poor conductors of heat, and are more likely to trap heat than to allow it to radiate into the room. Should I Go with Radiant Heat? If you are building a new house or you are considering a major renovation, radiant heat should definitely be on your list of options, particularly if the house has high ceilings. The best time to install a radiant heat system is when you are building the floors. Adding radiant heat to an existing structure is more labor-intensive and expensive, but it might make sense if you already have a large, underused water heater in good condition. Keep in mind that you do not need radiant heat in every room. You will probably want it in the bedrooms, bathrooms and living room, but hallways, closets and laundry rooms do not need the extra warmth. If you are on the fence, you can always give radiant heat a test run by purchasing an under-carpet heating mat. This provides the same type of warmth you would get from an actual radiant heating system, and the installation costs are zero.
How Can I Get My Foundation Brush Clean?
You will need not just water but also facial foam as well. Apply a dab of your usual facial wash to your palm and swish the wet brush in the hand in circles. You will see the facial foam changing colour to your foundation. Keep adding and washing off the facial wash until the water runs clear. Leave your brush to dry overnight naturally1. best MAC foundation brush that.....?150. It's fluffy enough to actually pick up the powder and be gentle on your face, but it's dense enough to actually deposit color without making you look like you just dunked your face in a bowl of powder. I totally feel where you are coming from here. I had a 187 and a kabuki brush for a really long time, so if I needed that medium amount of coverage, I was kind of screwed. Haha, for a while, I would use my kabuki, but only put powder on half of it. It worked pretty well, if you want to give that a try. But then I bought a 150, and it's just about all I use now. I use my 187 for Mineralize skinfinishes and blush now. Hope this helps!2. Please answer! How do I apply liquid foundation with an essence of beauty foundation brush without streaks?That results in streaks. You need to use a light hand. Use a feathary technique3. Does anyone know a good foundation brush?Mac has some good brushes and why dont you just check em out over line and get the prices4. How do you apply foundation with a brush on forehead?If you are using liquid foundation, one way to do it would be to dot your forhead with foundation and blend it in a downward motion to your nose. Make sure to use light steady strokes of the foundation brush. I hope you like this method and hope it works out for you.5. I have 2 URGENT questions....?1) It would probably be best if you did not . Lip gloss stays gooey and it might run into your eyes. Trust me, just go without until you get a new tube of mascara. 2) Basic brushes to own: Foundation brush, powder brush, blush brush, and fluffy eyeshadow brush. That should keep you covered until you decide you want to do something a bit more complex with your makeup. Good luck!6. How can I clean my MAC foundation brush?Foundation Brush Mac7. When you apply foundation with a brush does it change the coverage?Brush can give you thicker coverage whilst blending in the foundation, using your fingers you get a lighter coverage. If you decide to use a foundation brush I really like MACs 190 Brush, it is expensive put worth it.8. How do you clean a foundation brush?i use shampoo on mine as for the drying you need to blot out as much water as possilbe and then leave it to air dry. Mine are normally dry the next morning. Plus I only wash my once a week. That is what my makeup consultant told me9. Has anyone out there purchased MAC make-up?yeap..most of their items are sold separately...but sometimes(once in a blue moon,rather..) they sell it in a set...which is much much cheaper compared to wen u buy the exact items separately..(eg.studio fix foundation compact powder foundation brush - in a cute cosmetic pouch).. so u have to keep a look out for it..or call & enquire the MAC counters abt it. i dun noe if they hav it in ur country..but they hav it in Singapore. =) cheers.10. I really need a good liquid foundation brush!!?Mac brushes are the best!!11. What is the best way to apply cream makeup?I am going to disagree quite a bit here, and this is going to make sense if you use a pricey cream foundation. By using a sponge or beauty blender, you will waste quite a bit of product. My advice is to apply with clean fingers, and use a sponge, beauty blender or foundation brush to blend in the edges, if necessary.12. What's the best liquid foundation/concealer? And what's the best foundation brush?You might like this one Coastal Scents Professional Camouflage Concealer Palette. * 10 Concealers * Can be used by all ages and skin tones * Cream concealers * Very blendable
My Boyfriend Wants to Get Married? We Known Each Other for a Year?
My boyfriend wants to get married? We known each other for a year?You are a pig and you do not deserve him— — — — — —Need help with Guinea Pig.?guinea pigs are very sociable. if you arent planning on getting another, you need to be prepared to spend good quality time with this pet. right now, he sounds lonely and is stressed out because of his new home. he should get over this soon, but if not, or if he stops eating, try the vet--they may advise you to get a second, which you should do early on, before the pig is grown. Some fun things to do with a pig are feeding them treats like carrots, letting them play inside cereal boxes, taking them outside on a leash, and talking to them--most will "answer" back with happy squeaks!— — — — — —Guinea pig squeaking- good or bad?this is the sound a pig makes— — — — — —Have any of you been a compulsive eater?well i dont like finishing my food frist cause it makes me fell like a pig— — — — — —Which breed of pig is best to keep as a pet?It is never a good idea to buy a pet for another person without their knowledge or consent. They may have plans for the future that you are not aware of that do not involve owning that animal, and the animal will likely end up in a shelter. That being said, for an indoor pet, the only really practical pig to keep is a pot belly. They still get anywhere from 75 to 150 lbs, require more care and details than I could fit in this box, and live 10 to 15 years. There are smaller pigs but they are rare / endangered. A Pig will Completely tear up the garden, so she will need fencing to keep it out. She will also need dedicated outdoor space for the pig to roam around and root safely. If piggy is not allowed to root outdoors, piggy will do it indoors. Before buying a pig make sure to check local zoning ordinances for her county and state. Usually available online, at the local public library, or at the county business offices. Also before buying it find a vet in her area that will commit to treating pot belly pigs, you can not just assume the local vet will know pot belly pigs. They require vastly different medical treatment from farm pigs. Cost will Vary from location to location. Expect to pay anywhere from 50 - 200 for the pig if you buy it local, 500 to 600 plus shipping if you use an online breeder. One Bag of Food should be around 15-25 bugs at a local farm supply store and will last a few months. Pigs are social creatures but you do not need more than one pig. Mine keeps great company with our cat.— — — — — —What is the most dirtest funniest joke you have ever heard!?A pig fell in the mud— — — — — —How do I save money? ?Give it to a Pig to keep safe— — — — — —Pig IslandPig Island may refer to: Pig Island (Exuma), the Bahamas Pig Island (Newfoundland and Labrador), Canada Pig Island, New Zealand, in Lake Wakatipu Pig Island (Ottawa, Canada) Pig Island, County Down, a townland in County Down, Northern Ireland Pig Island (Queensland), Australia Pig Island (novel), a British thriller novel "Pig Island" (song), a song by Sandra Boynton and Michael Ford— — — — — —am i turning into a muslim?try first to turn from a pig to a human , then go choose a religion— — — — — —How do you make a homemade football?They used to make them out of animal bladders. Yes, like when they butchered a pig or sheep— — — — — —How do you think the Great Khali would fare as a rugby player?Good scrummager but about as fast as a pig in reverse— — — — — —Do you think this image captures the moment?i wonder if they are pig farmers happy as a pig in .— — — — — —I am thinking about getting a guinea pig and I wondered if their bite hurts?Having raised guinea pigs because i became into knee severe to a hopper, i got here across that not all pigs are going to tame down. My first journey became into with 13 of those critters and maximum all of them weeet weeet weeet each and each time I opened the crisped drawer of the refrigerator, it incredibly is using the fact they knew that i became into getting them lettus, carrots, celery. besides as feeding them a good bowl of alfala pellets that keeps to be crammed each and all of the time, they will grow to be your chum authentic rapid that way and you will maximum possibly get bored of listening to them yet. .I also have a pig right now and he will weet weet at me yet run like heck as quickly as I attitude the cage. as quickly as he's out, he will come working to me and snuggle authentic close for risk-free practices while he spooks which brings up the actuality of guinea pigs. . information.enable them to hearken to the crisper drawer and you saying the comparable element each and each time dazzling formerly you supply him that handle and he will weeet weeet weeet swifter than you would be wanting. I constantly say hereeee pig pig pig repeatedly, the full time additionally, for some reason this is not good to maintain your pig interior 20 ft of your T. V. there are sounds and tones that injury their ears and scares them. i am hoping I helped you. there is not something worse than loving something that would not love you decrease back
My Mom Won't Let Me Go to School Tomorrow?
I have never been in a situation like this but ill try. Try and see if your dad will be able to take care of you sister. If your mom wont accept that then try and reason with maybe going half of the day (you should still be able to turn in your exam reviews) and just bring a note saying why you were late (like personal reasons that usually works) if that doesnt work try talking to your dad. I mean you could always sneak out but ur mom would be really mad. Maybe tell her you cant get an A if you dont go tomorrow. Good Luck i hope you get to go. :)1. Do you think you're going to have school tomorrow?I do not have school on Wednesdays2. i want to bring my whey protein shake to school, can i just make the whey protein shake for school tomorrow?No, it is going to clump up and turn into a mud like substance. Mix it when you are ready to use it3. First day of school tomorrow, can't sleep, help please?I can never sleep the night before the first day either. But I am sure a lot of people wo not know each other at your school, and you will have no problem finding friends. I am starting high school Wednesday and I only know about five people. Whenever I can not sleep, I make a small playlist of my favorite songs and fall asleep listening to it. I use earbuds and they probably fall out as soon as I turn over, but the music distracts my mind and I pay attention to the words instead of my thoughts. Put your iPod under your pillow so it can not fall during the night. Also, use a cheap pair of headphones/earbuds in case you roll over on them or something. For me, it also helps to just envision a completely black space. Good luck! Get off the internet as soon as you read this (but after you pick this as best answer;).4. What should I wear to school tomorrow? Best for 10.?Going for a sexy-sophisticated look? You should wear a black mini skirt with no type of design so that the focus goes to your frilly, semi-colorful blouse/top. Since you are blonde, a forest green would look really great but that's just an idea. Make sure the top is sleeveless so that you can throw on a business-type of jacket which is a darker shade. Black, dark grey, purple, all depending on the shirt you chose. You can wear gladiater sandals or if you want an extra touch and you are that type of girl, nice heals. Just do not make this look like you are trying too hard. I am 14, so I understand. Good luck!! (:.5. what shall i wear to school tomorrow?you shall wear soomething very flattering...maybe some jeans a cute top & some ballet flats. You should wear your hair kind of curly with a skinny headband. That would look so cute!!.6. I've been using Tazorac (a retinoid) and my skin is peeling I have school tomorrow, how do I hide this or makeTry using a penis health creme every day. If you get a good creme containing vitamins and nutrients, you will stop that peeling in its tracks! Good luck!7. Poll: what are you gonna wear to school tomorrow?A Ramones shirt tucked into a high- waisted black skirt that has floral print with shear tights and my black booties. I will probably wear my hair down and messy, kinda like my profile pic8. What to wear to school tomorrow?dark wash skinny jeans 1 pink graphic tshirt/patriotic jerse gold sandal bracelets necklace earrings that are silver. hope this helps!9. What to wear for first day of school tomorrow?WEAR THE OPTION#1 :) FOR EYESHADOW USE LIGHT PINK U CAN STILL USED EYE SHADOW JUST B EXTRA CAREFUL N ACCESORIES A NICE BRACELET OR NICE NECKLEES UMMM RINGS BELT? CLIPS 4 UR HAIR? EARINGS ?10. What Shall I Wear To School Tomorrow?I would wear a pink tee shirt from Hollister or any other store with skinny jeans and your Real Brown UGGS. This is what I am wearing to school tomorrow!
Pease I Need Help Fast, I Have a Peugeot 306 1.4 Fuel Injector?
because you did not pin it, if you've rotated it or it has rotated you could get the timing 180 degrees out. which will mess up your injection timing and it will run very badly No.1 and no.4 can not both be at TDC. TDC is the "spark" stroke. you need to look at the crank timing marks and line up the scribed line on the flywheel to 0 degrees. that will make sure that no.1 is at TDC and that no.4 is on it's "dead" stroke. I am sure you can pin the crank at 0 or there abouts. you need to set up the cam so that NO.4 cylinder is on the INLET stroke when rotated clockwise. set it so that the lobes are not touching the valves with equal distance. after you've done this, you should be able to pin through the gear into the head with I think an M8 bolt. timing should be set, bolt the head down but do not torque it up! fit the belt and tension it moderately. rotate the engine by hand just to double check that valves are not going to hit on startup. if the valves hit you've not followed what I've said. if they do not hit the pistons, then you need to torque the head down and in the correct order. tension the belt so that you can not turn it more than 1/4 between 2 pulleys with the shortest distance. if the engine runs smooth then that's you done. I am not liable for any damage you cause. Since you did not pin it makes me think you do not know/understand what you are doing fully so your best bet is to get a mechanic! then you can moan at him if something goes wrong. good luck. P.S buy yourself a haynes manual.1. Is a $90 fuel injector service worth it?Well unless you know how to do it yourself you get charged extra for the labor cost. Typically, the chemical fluid itself costs about anywhere from 10 to 15 dollars.2. Car shutting off while driving. Steering wheel locks up, fuel injector system problem?Replace both of those relays. And in the future, do not buy a car from auction.3. How can Nissan make a V6 engine more powerful than Jeeps V6?Horsepower can be affected by a LOT of things ... the type of fuel injector used... the richness of the fuel mixture within the combustion chamber... the gear ratio... the way an engine is tuned... the exhaust system... etc., etc., etc4. Catalytic Converter? Transmission? or Fuel Injector problems on 2001 Chevy Impala?The first thing I would do is get a tune up. That sounds like the worst problem. But that does not have anything to do with the starting problem5. Hey, took car to shop. They said that the problem isn't the spark,compression,fuel pump,fuel injector pulsereally need more info what was the original problem? Was the car setting for awhile? bad gas can make a car run poorly or not at all. injector might be stopped up. has it been hot?(over heated) have you checked for vacuum leaks? as for the shop you are using find another shop and stay away from that one your shop should be able to diagnose your problem and fix it also have timing checked6. How often should I add fuel injector to my gas?3M Total Fuel System Cleaner and Chevron Techron Fuel System Cleaner are better, stronger products than the other county fair alixir's on parts store shelves. If the car is driven at fast maximum highway speeds you likely will never need it. Slow-poke town driving will pack more carbon in the combustion chambers, behind the valves and dirty-up the fuel injection nozzles. In this case, once or twice a year in an empty fuel tank then fill it as per instructions on the bottle is enough.7. Why is my fuel injector not getting power?As Kelly says, follow the wire. You have to trace the wire back (a wiring diagram of the bike would help), looking for the last place there is voltage and the first place there is no voltage. The problem is between these 2 points
Physics Problem on Potential and Kinetic Energy...?
I think this is how you solve it w = integral of f dx You can find the integration limits based on how far the chain falls If only the 1.2m section of the chain moved, this would be easy. Since sections of the chain on the table move less than the sections dangling, write the amount a "small" section has moved vertically as a function of how far it is from the top, (the end of the table section). (ie, a section at 1m from the top only moves 1m, while the very top moves 0) - No work is done to it while its on the table since the force is perpendicular to the direction of motion. Because the force is constant, multiply the expression for distance moved by the weight density, and integrate. If you dont know calculus, you can plot the graph of the function and find the area under the curve between the start at the distance moved when the chain falls off.1. Why is a 3-PDA no more powerful than a 2-PDA?Two stacks can emulate a Turing machine tape. Motion along the tape is isomorphic to popping some symbol $x$ from one stack and pushing it onto the other stack. Writing to the tape is isomorphic to popping something from one stack and writing the new thing to that stack. Thus, anything a one tape Turing machine can do, a 2-PDA can do. Since a Turing machine can simulate a $k$-PDA for finite $k$, it can certainly simulate a 3-PDA. Therefore a 2-PDA is just as computationally powerful as a 3-PDA.2. Is the equation of motion true for a non-uniform motion?A motion is said to be non uniform if it has an acceleration . If whatever is the acceleration then in such kind of nonuniformity motion equations of motion are valid but if in non uniform motion acceleration is not changing then it differential equation will be valid3. Should you strength train with resistance bands or dumbbells?If you've paid even a little attention to the boom in at-home workouts during quarantine, you've likely seen resistance bands popping up everywhere. Resistance band exercises are popular for good reason: compared to other fitness equipment, they are inexpensive, easy to store and simple to use at home (or anywhere for that matter). But do resistance band workouts really work? Who should be using them? And what is the best way to work out with a resistance band? For answers, we turned to orthopedic clinical specialist and physical therapist Erika Mundinger. Currently traveling the country in an RV, she's been discovering the best resistance band workouts in her own small space. "Can you get toned, can you get strong, can you get a good workout with resistance bands and hit weight-loss goals? Absolutely," Mundinger said. First, what is the difference in strength training with resistance bands versus weights? "If I grab a 15-pound dumbbell, the resistance of that 15 pounds stays consistent throughout the entire contraction," that's known as an isotonic contraction, Mundinger explained. "And then there's isokinetic, which is what we get from the resistance bands, and that's where the resistance changes as I move. [When] I grab that resistance band to do a bicep curl towards me, that resistance is going to get harder on the top and easier as I bring my hand back down. The more we are going through the motion, the resistance actually changes. So it just strengthens the muscles a little bit differently." Various bands come in different levels of resistance. "Each brand is going to have their own pretty rainbow color scheme," Mundinger said, "and it's pretty standard that lighter colors are typically lighter resistance, and as it gets darker it gets harder." When you can consistently maintain your form through a full range of motion with a band, you can begin to work your way up to the next one, she said. All you need is a set of bands and something stable to fasten them to. Emphasis on stable: if you try to anchor them to a table leg, "unless it's like an oak table that seats 12 you are going to pull the table over," she said. Think a banister or post, or if you actually have a home gym, a squat rack. "If you do not have something to anchor them to, that means you are going to be anchoring them underneath your foot or your arm," Mundinger said. In that case, "the most versatile ones are the long tubes with the handles." "It's hard to know exactly how much resistance you are pulling with," Mundinger said, so people who really want to be scientific about the amount of weight they are lifting wo not be able to do that. They are also not as helpful for training power moves like Olympic lifts, she said. "And you are probably not going to get quite as ripped," she said. "Because the resistance is changing as I move, I can not take my body through a full range of motion." With a squat, for example, "I can not get my body to do a full deep squat with resistance bands unless they are really light," she added. "To get big and strong and ripped like we would with full-body motions that we can do with dumbbells, kettlebells and barbells, it's hard to do because you are going to be starting at the bottom with really light resistance and ending with really hard resistance, and it's just impossible to create that power motion." "Because it is isokinetic and it gets harder as you move through, we start to activate our stabilizer muscles a lot more," Mundinger said. "So the more I am pulling on that band, the more my core muscles have to engage, the more I am raising my arms up overhead, the more my stabilizer muscles around my shoulder blades have to engage. So in physical therapy we love resistance band isokinetic stuff because it really trains that core stability." They can also help you improve your other workouts, including those using dumbbells. After working with resistance bands, "when I go back to those big foundational moves like the bench press or the squat or the deadlift, I am stronger because I have those accessory muscles now engaging more," Mundinger said. "Even if you are not hitting the weight room, they are just great for overall functional strength that I need to have throughout my day." Physical therapists love resistance bands, Mundinger said. "They are a good exercise for people who have injuries to be able to still build some core strength and stability and not flare up injuries and inflammation." Isokinetic exercises allow you to perform a lot more repetitions with lighter resistance, which comes with a lower risk of injury compared to performing isotonic exercises, she said. They also make it easy to "modify and substitute and limit your range of motion as much as or as little as you need to," she added. For anyone who can not load their lumbar spine with barbell squats, you can still train body-weight squats with bands, Mundinger said, "and then you get the cardiovascular component of the squat without causing back pain." OK, but we all want to know: Can we burn fat specifically in the stomach area? "Are you going to burn belly fat because you are burning calories and getting a workout? Yes," Mundinger said. Can you isolate your belly to burn fat with resistance bands? Not exactly. "Normal exercise will help you be able to do that," Mundinger said. "You will burn belly fat because you are working out, period." Ready to give resistance bands a try? Here is a 15-minute resistance band routine that will work your entire body
Kylie Jenner Shows Off Her Baby Bump for the First Time As She Steps Out Wearing a Baggy Tracksuit
KYLIE Jenner has revealed her ‘baby bump’ for the first time.The 20-year-old was spotted boarding a private jet in a black tracksuit, showing what appears to be the first look at her bump.Kylie is yet to comment on reports she's pregnant with her first child with boyfriend Travis Scott.But she has been keeping fans on their toes with her latest social media posts, as she appears to avoid showing her belly to the camera - until now.Last week the Keeping Up With The Kardashians took to Instagram to show off her Halloween costume - yet only showed fans her top half of her body.And she posted a snap of herself with sister Khloe, who is also reported to be expecting, over the weekend – but they both kept their figures well and truly under wraps.In the pic, the pair stand next to a drinks fridge in oversized hoodies and jogging trousers.Make-up mogul Kylie and her older sister looked completely fresh-faced as they turned their trip to the store into an impromptu photoshoot.As if that wasn't enough to get the rumour mills going, Kylie recently gave fans another reason to suspect she's with child, as she spent a whopping £3.8 million on a plot of land close to her current £9.2 million home.TMZ.com reported Kylie plans to turn it into a large garden and horse-riding trail.But while Kylie isn’t ready to talk about her reported pregnancy, she did hit back at the latest images of her bump, claiming they are photoshopped.In a post on Twitter, she wrote: "First of all if you’re going to photoshop my photos blogs/paps!!"Check for the crooked lines in the background. 2nd photo is clearly altered."Meanwhile been reported thatKhloe and Kylie are lining up a joint nude shootto show off their matching baby bumps.Their older sister Kim posted a naked pregnancy selfie in 2015 - and now Khloe, 33, and Kylie, 20, are trying to line up a "beautiful" mag shoot to show off their own reportedly changing figures.The headline-grabbing reality TV sisters are already poised to "dominate the mummy market",with their mother Kris Jenner setting up business meetings for Kylie.A source toldHollywood Life:“Khloe and Kylie would like to show the world at the same time their growing bellies and would like to do it in a magazine shoot than would be reminiscent ofDemi Moore‘s iconic nude pregnancy pictorial inVanity Fair."They would love to be belly to belly and together to show off their bumps in the most beautiful way possible."Got a story? email digishowbiz@the-sun.co.uk or call us direct on 02077824220.We pay for videos too. Click here to upload yours.
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